The monolayer of diclogenogenide transition (TMD) was placed on top of graphene to induce the conversion of the charge into a spin to graphene.

This empirical observation is described in the Nano Letters magazine edition, published on September 11, 2019.

Spintronics is an attractive alternative way of making low-power electronic devices. It does not depend on the charging current, but depends on the current of the electron rotation.

Spin is a quantum mechanical property of an electron, a magnetic moment that can be used to transmit or store information.


Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon, is an excellent rotation conveyor. However, to create a spin or spin, the interaction of electrons with atomic nuclei is required: coupling of the spin orbit.

This reaction is extremely weak in carbon, making it difficult to generate or process the rotational currents in graphene.

However, it has been shown that the coupling of the spin orbit in graphene will increase when heavy unipolar atoms (eg TMD) are placed from a substance, forming the van der Waals thermal structure.

In the physics of the Nanodevice group, led by Professor Bart van Wies at the University of Groningen, a Ph.D. student followed by Giassi and postdoctoral researcher Alexei Kawarzin created such a heterogeneous structure.

Using gold electrodes, they managed to send a net charge current through graphene and create a spin stream referred to as the Rushba-Edelstein effect.

This is due to the interaction with heavy atoms in the TMD monolayer (in this case tungsten disulfide). This known effect was first seen in graphene which was adjacent to two-dimensional materials.


“The current charge induces a graphene rotation current, which we can measure from a selective rotational magnetic electrode,” Giaci says.

This conversion from charging to rotation makes it possible to construct fully electric circuits with graphene. Previously, the injectors must have been rotated by magnet.

“We have also shown that the efficiency of generating the accumulation of rotation can be adjusted by applying an electric field,” says Biasi. This means that they have created a spin transistor through which to turn the current of the spin.

The Rashba – Edelstein effect is not the only one that produces the circulation current. The study indicates that the effect of spin rotation does the same, but these cycles rotate differently.

“When we apply a magnetic field, we produce rotating spinning in the field. The different symmetries of the rotation signals resulting from two effects in interaction with the magnetic field help us to dislike the contribution of each effect to the system.”

This was the first time that both types of charge-to-rotation mechanisms were observed in the same system.

“This will enable us to have a more fundamental look at the nature of the rotation coupling in these heterogeneous structures.”

Graphene flagship

In addition to the basic ideas that the study can provide, the construction of a fully electrically operated two-dimensional transistor (without ferromagnets) is of great importance for spintronic applications, which are also a major objective of the EU Graphene.

The rotation signal decreased as the temperature increased but still existed much in ambient conditions.”

In the previous work (published in Science Robotics), researchers first demonstrated the dynamics of plasma tweezers through the combined effects of magnetic and optical forces.

However, due to this mixed approach, some forceps do not apply to some types of colloids, such as magnetic nanoparticles. Parallel manipulation drills could not be independently controlled.

In the experiment, they merged the nanodisc (made of silver) into a microrode buffer (made of glass), building a hybrid structure with a focused laser beam.

This is a unique revelation of the concept of “forceps in forceps” where convenience and maneuverability is achieved using a single laser beam.

These photovoltaic nanotubes can operate any liquid by precisely controlling any liquid environment, allowing a high-speed and efficient nanometric charge to 40 nm (typical length scales for viruses, DNA and various molecules). Control is as small as.

The researchers also demonstrated parallel and independent control over the manipulation of several nanostructures, including fluorescent nanoparticles and ultra-low-power magnetic nanoparticles.