At the end of the summer of 1849, the clear sky over Venice was filled with a small fleet of balloons, floating safely over the city.

However, the exhibition was not intended for tourists. For a year, the revolutionary gun challenged the Habsburg Imperial forces gathered outside their doors.

Austrian artillery officer Franz von Osatius had a new idea to end the siege. Each balloon charged an explosive device in the form of a pear 15 kg, exploded 23 minutes after its launch.

After changing the wind, which destroyed the precise calculations conducted by von Uchatius, the experiment ended without any fuss, and stopped an explosion in Piazza San Marco, now home to Europe’s greatest underdeveloped cultural heritage and cafes, beating an unreported pioneer.

The bold attacks on oil facilities in Abqaiq and Khoras in eastern Saudi Arabia last week that halved the country’s production, or about 5 percent of global production, show how much technology has evolved in the 170 years since the Venice blockade.

Ten drones at less than $ 5,000 have penetrated one of the world’s most advanced air defense systems and caused billions of dollars in losses.

Since 2003, it is known that Lashkar-e-Taiba has been interested in aerial vehicles or drones.

That year, the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) helped Ali Lion Chandan, a Maryland resident in Lahore, to buy drones, night vision equipment and wireless video cameras for LeT.

Lashkar was not used anywhere, but it was not the end of the story

In recent years, intelligence sources have reported that both Jaysh and Lashkar-e-Taiba have made a number of efforts to adapt commercially available drones as platforms for the production of IEDs, but these guidelines are unable to overcome system problems. And load.

Autapilot is readily available, however, there are many unimportant issues that must be overcome before precise attacks can be made.

ArduPilot and his cousin PX4 contain hundreds of parameters that affect everything from pitch and sensitivity to how the autopilot responds to lost GPS signals.

Even small mistakes can have serious consequences – something less than ideal for use by unskilled insurgents who work in harsh environments.

However, this is already changing. In a 2016 article, Mark Jacobsen, a former US Air Force officer, described how his humanitarian organization, Evolution, which used drones to deliver humanitarian aid through the disputed airspace in Syria.

Each drone used by Hoist, which costs about $ 700 for construction, can carry an 18-kilogram payload stretching over 60 kilometers, with an autopilot who has successfully overcome electronic countermeasures.

Last year, the United Nations reported that Houthi rebels in Yemen had developed a new type of UAV, supported by a Chinese-made DLE 170 or a German-style 3W110i B2 engine, capable of extending a range of up to 1600 kilometers.

And 250 km at its speed. This gave them the ability to hit targets deep inside Saudi Arabia with an 18kg explosive warhead, which was filled with ball bearings to increase mortality.

In addition, the Houthis adapted commercially available civilian drones such as the Chinese Skywalker 8X to a variety of reconnaissance and explosive delivery roles.

From the Islamic State of Iraq to the militias in Ukraine, a group of insurgent and terrorist groups have successfully used drones for a wide range of roles, from serving on high-profile suicide missions to sophisticated intelligence missions.

The military drone program Islamabad has expanded dramatically in recent years.

A variety of imported learning systems – Luna in Germany, Italian Falco, Sikar in South Africa, and the UK Snipe and Streak – for example, were successfully created against militants in the valleys of Shawal and Barak in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Burak system is used 2015

This means that technology is likely to gradually spread to jihadi groups as well.

For Indian troops in Kashmir, as well as police across the country, drones would mean dealing with the threat of a surprisingly new system: building strongholds, or deploying more guards, not enough to protect bus bases or facilities. reliable.

In 2017, Mike Egan, head of the US military agency, a joint organization to defeat the threat of reform that examines new challenges, explicitly acknowledged that “there is no anti-drone device operating in Iraq. The regime is not.”

This year, the Pentagon will spend more than $ 1.5 billion on more than 90 projects, ranging from modifications to existing missiles and anti-air systems to electronic warfare technology and targeted energy weapons.