Remura fish are famous hikers in the marine world, with high-energy suction discs behind their heads to attach themselves to big hosts in a torpedo-like way, ranging from whales and sharks to boats and divers. Can provide food and security.

The key to Remora adhesion is the well-known ability of the disc to produce suction, as well as the friction caused by spikey bones inside the disc to maintain its grip on its host called lamella.

However, the factors driving the development of the unique disk morphology of Remora are what researchers have long tried to understand.

And even the engineering of new devices and adhesives that can harm their host without further imitating the invincible fish’s ability to close on different surface species without spending Lots of energy.

Often for hours at a time under extreme ocean forces.

In a study conducted at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), the researchers showed a new biologically inspired Remora tablet capable of simulating the negative forces of suction and friction that demonstrate the ability of fish. , Which has more than 60% grip.

For live remora associated with shark skin

Using the disk model to explore the evolutionary impulses of Remora tablets, the researchers say the results of the study provide evidence that today’s species of Remora have evolved with a much larger number of platelets over time.

In order to increase their holding ability and their ability to contact a wide range of hosts with smooth surfaces, thus increasing their chances of survival. Yes, it is.

The study depicted in Bioinspiration and Biomimetics suggests that tablet models can be used to inform design with more effective and low-cost adhesive techniques in the future.

“The beauty behind the Remora adhesive system is that biological tissues do most of the work,” said Brook Fleming, a professor of biological sciences at NJIT University.

“The most important aspect of this research is that our CD is entirely based on basic physics, which drives the adhesion mechanism of REMORA, allowing us to determine biologically relevant performance and insight into the evolution of the REMORA tablet.

Require a human operator to control the TA Ho system

Many of their ancestors resembling scavengers, such as cobia (Rachycentran canadum), are believed to have first joined the hosts of Remora (from the Acanedi family), which evolved into sharks, reaching a rough surface. I went. The disk of the dorsal fin extends about 32 million years ago.

Today’s remorse tablets have a soft-touch outer lip for aspiration, while the inner part of the disc contains many linear rows of tissue (platelets), such as tooth tissue projections (spinol) that friction against various hosts to prevent slipping during walking long.

According to Fleming, while scientists have shed some light on the origin of the modified Remora fin structure, the basic aspects of the development of the disc remained largely unclear.

“The development of the Remora tablet is largely unknown,” Flemong said. “One of the fossils in the fossil record is Remora, or opisthomyson, with the lowest plate [of remorse today] without spinning back from the head.”

Fleming says this raises two questions: “how” and “why”.

Flemong said: “How is the dorsal fin, although the stages of intermediate development is unknown.”

“If you look at a pattern of remorse, it shows that the species that are thought to be more derived contain more lamina … and have been considered the” cause “for adhesive performance, but before this paper it was never tested.”

To find out more, Clement Gamel, senior study author and former graduate researcher at Flemong Laboratory, designed a Remora-inspired cylinder of commercially available 3D printed materials to maintain independent bonding to different surfaces.

Can be adjusted by adding and removing the plate. Enable the team to investigate the performance of increasing the number of plates on shear adhesion.

“Our disk’s ability to add and remove platelets while acting as a passive system has allowed us to change the amount of friction with the surrounding pressure inside the disk,” said Jamil, who now holds a PhD.

Researcher at Akron University. “We were able to compare the difference without any friction, some friction, and a lot of friction based on the difference in the number of lamella.”

In collaboration with Akron University researcher Austin Garner, the team conducted a pull test with their underwater disk model, which experimented with the model’s sheet number (up to 12 sheets) to measure shear strength and time.

Tablets of silicone molds with surfaces ranging from perfectly smooth skin to superficial (350 grit, 180 grit and 100 grit).

Overall, the team found that the performance of their disc adhesive was strongly correlated with an increase in disc plates, noting a “sweet spot” in the suction force between nine and 12 whistles.

When twelve Lamello and 294 thermal columns are adjusted, the team’s disk weighs only 45 grams and 27 seconds (Nm) of force for 50 seconds – about three times the force normally extracted from a Remora shark.

Tests also showed that there were at least six platelets – found by chance in the 32 million-year-old fossil avizomon to preserve the shell.

“The most striking thing about these results is that for the specific disk size, there is an ideal range in which friction and aspiration phenomena are balanced, and [where their disk size has increased longer] this sweet spot” regrets evolved to maintain high-performance adhesion, “Flammang explained.

The team now states that their Remora tablet model will be used for future evolutionary studies to see if aspiration or erosion in ancient Remora ancestors affects pre-attachment of disk adhesion and development.

Tablets can contain engineering applications in everything from medical sensors and drug delivery devices to geo-sensing markers for environmental studies and marine life tracking.

“The biggest advantage of our design is that it works independently because it only depends on physics. For the operating system,” Flemung said. “This makes it easily scalable to many new technologies for both medical and scientific purposes.”